|Akuma (ah-koo-mah): Foreign devil or evil being, but not an oni (oh-nee, ogre-like demon). Related to this is koakuma ("little devil"), which is used to describe a seductive mysterious woman or a similar type of female.|
Akiko explains the differences between an akuma and an oni.
Ayakashi (ah-yah-kah-shee; related to ayashii, suspicious): A questionable creature or doubtful thing. What is blamed when you don't know the reason for an occurrence.
Bake-chōchin (bah-keh choh-cheen): Ghostly paper lantern.
Bakemono (bah-keh-moh-noh, transformed thing), or obake (oh-bah-keh): Supernatural monsters, goblins, or ghosts, including yōkai (yoh-kah-ee) and yūrei (yoo-reh-ee).
Bake-neko (bah-keh neh-koh): Monster cat.
|Bake-zōri (bah-keh zoh-ree, sandal spook): Spooky one-eyed straw sandal that has arms and legs.|
|Baku (bah-koo, tapir): Pig-like with an elephant snout, it will eat your nightmares if you command it to. Asian tapir, species tapirus indicus.|
Botan ('BOH-tahn, peony): King of flowers.
Buta (boo-tah, pig): Japanese Wild Pig, species Sus leucomystax. Wild Boar, species Sus scrofa.
|Daruma (dah-roo-mah), or okiagari-koboshi daruma (oh-kee-ah-gah-ree koh-boh-shee, self-righting tumbler doll): Bodhidharma, the founder of Zen Buddhism, meditated for nine years uninterrupted, and his arms and legs withered away.|
Bodhidharma Cave (or "Dharma Hole," from sign outside it, video source: Visiting Bodhidharma's Cave, Part 4), original Shaolin Temple, Mt. Song, Henan Province, China. It is about 1,000 stairsteps or one hour to reach the 10-foot wide x 12-foot high cave. An extracted section of the wall where Bodhidharma's figure was outlined by the sun from his long meditation can be viewed in the Shaolin Temple. (Sources: Bodhidharma's Cave on Mount Song in China, Place Shaolin.)
Eye-less, roly-poly papier-mâché dolls of him are purchased for luck. Eyes are painted in for each fortunate day, or the right eye is painted in with a request and when the wish is granted the left eye is added. Daruma dolls symbolize resilience, because when they are knocked over, they spring right back up.
Fūjin (foo-jeen, god of wind): Carries a billowing sack of wind over his shoulders.
|Hariko-inu (hah-ree-koh ee-noo, papier-mâché dog; also inu-hariko): Guardian dog charm that protects babies from harm and keeps them from crying at night.|
Heike Monogátari (heh-ee-keh moh-noh-GAH-tah-ree; The Tale of the Heike): An epic narrative about the conflict (1156-1185 A.D.) between the Taira clan (tah-ee-rah; aka Heike, red flag) and the Minamoto clan (mee-nah-moh-toh; aka Genji, white flag). (related Genpei War (1180-85 A.D.), name from combined first half of names of Heike and Genji)
Henge (hehn-geh, shape-shifter): Well-known shape-shifters are the tanuki (tah-noo-kee, raccoon dog) and kitsune (kee-tsoo-neh, fox).
|Hi-no-tama (hee noh tah-mah; aka hito-dama): Fireball or will-o’-the-wisp. They are thought to be the fiery bodiless souls of the dead. They can be seen over marshes and other wet areas where there is a lot of decaying matter. The rotting material creates a gas by-product of mostly methane, which is combustible at low concentrations of just 5-15%. Also referred to as kitsune-bi (kee-tsoo-neh bee, fox fire) where they might be lighting the way for a wedding procession of foxes, or oni-bi (oh-nee bee, oni fire).|
A famous scene with hito-dama is from the story of Mimí-nashi Hōichi (Hōichi the Earless). The blind biwa player Hōichi is surrounded by numerous hito-dama in Amida-ji* (ah-mee-dah-jee, Amida Temple) cemetery where he unknowingly sits as he recites the tragic story of the Taira (aka Heike, red flag) clan at the Battle of Dan-no-ura (1185) against the Minamoto clan (aka Genji, white flag). *Amida-ji is present-day Akama-jingū (ah-kah-mah, Akama Shrine) in Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi Prefecture.
I saw a hi-no-tama going up the hill in Manoa Valley in Hawaii near the Chinese cemetery there. Not surprising if you know how much it rains there (slugs everywhere). A hi-no-tama was also seen by my mother as a young girl. One night she was sent to the store to buy her father a pack of cigarettes. The path went by a hillside cemetery next to a small dirty river where people dumped their garbage. As she was about to cross the bridge over the river, she noticed the area starting to get lighter. Thinking it was the moon, she turned around to see a long, crackling bluish green fireball floating just above her. Her body froze, but her head involuntarily followed the hi-no-tama. As soon as she could move, she ran home to a disbelieving father who thought she was being lazy and just didn't want to buy his cigarettes.
Hyakki yakō (hyah-kee yah-koh, aka hyakki yagyō): Night procession or parade of one hundred demons, monsters, and ghosts, a popular theme for artists. The e-maki (eh-mah-kee, picture narrative handscroll) is a perfect format for its depiction.|
Hyakú monogátari (hyah-KOO moh-noh-GAH-tah-ree, one hundred stories or tales): Originating in the 19th-century Edo period, it is a summertime ghost storytelling circle that begins after the sun goes down. A hundred short candles (or wicks) are lit. A candle is extinguished after each brief story of just a few sentences is told. When the final candle is extinguished and it is completely dark, that's when the ghosts come out.
Jichinsai (jee-cheen-sah-ee): A Shintō ceremony conducted at a site before construction begins. It is designed to bless and purify the land and to appease the kami (gods or living spirits) in the area.
|Jigoku (jee-goh-koo, Hell):|
Contents of Yoshihide's Jigokuhen (Hell Screen) from Akutagawa's short story Hell Screen
"… [W]hen Yoshihide was engaged on a piece of work it was as though he had been betwitched by a fox. … And the proof of it was that if you went to his studio and peered at him unbeknownst you could see the ghostly foxes swarming all around him."
(Hell Screen, p. 30)
1) Ten Kings of the Underworld and their abodes
2) Forest of Swords encircled by smoking fires in which sinners are struggling and punished by nonhuman jailers with ox and horse heads.
3) Burning carriage in which a court lady is trapped.
4) Men bound in iron chains.
5) Men attacked by animals.
6) Nonhuman jailers including animal-headed jailers and demons with three faces and six arms.
|Jizō (jee-zoh): Buddhist guardian of souls, and protector of children and travelers. He is often seen as a stone figure with a cloth baby’s cap and a red bib. In the afterworld, when demons show up to bully the souls of children, Jizō hides the children in his robes. Sometimes he is seen as a set of six statues, Roku-jizō (roh-koo jee-zoh), a Jizō for each realm of creation from Heaven to Hell. (aka Indian Kshitigarbha; Piggott, p. 16)
He carries a six-ring staff, which warns living things such as insects of his approach so he will not step on them.
|Jūní-shi (joo-nee-shee, Chinese zodiac): The Chinese sixty-year lunar calendar has five twelve-year cycles, which are paired with the positively (yang +) and negatively (yin —) coded elements of metal, water, wood, fire, and earth (Lau, p. xiii).
The animals associated with the twelve years are: 1. Rat, 2. Ox (or Bull, Cow), 3. Tiger, 4. Hare (or Rabbit), 5. Dragon, 6. Snake (or Serpent), 7. Horse, 8. Sheep, 9. Monkey, 10. Rooster, 11. Dog, and 12. Wild Boar (or Pig). The order is based on the order they reached the deathbed of Lord Buddha upon his summons, with the Rat arriving on the Ox.
Kaeru (kah-eh-roo, frog): The word also means "to return." There are frog charms you can slip into your wallet to ensure good luck with money, that is, money will "return" or come back after you have spent it all.
Kagami (kah-gah-'mee, mirror): A sacred symbol in the indigenous Shintō religion. A mirror, or a body of water like a puddle, will give away a shape-shifter by showing its true reflection. A shape-shifter's shadow will also betray it.
Kagami mochi (kah-gah-'mee moh-chee) (mirror rice cake): A New Year's thanksgiving offering consisting of two rice cakes topped by a bitter-tasting daidai. Often a tangerine or mandarin orange is used. The rice cakes represent the previous year's harvest, while the daidai represents the family over the generations. The offering also symbolizes two of the three sacred treasures of Japan, the Sanshu-no-Jingi (Imperial Regalia of Japan; round mirror, magatama jewel [or the string of jewels], and sword).
Kaiban Banashi (kah-ee-bahn bah-nah-shee, ghost tales): A storytelling genre.
Kaibutsu (kah-ee-boo-tsoo), or kaijū (kah-ee-joo): Modern-day monster. Godzilla is a good example.
Kaidan (kah-ee-dahn): Traditional ghost story. A well-known collection of translated Japanese ghost stories is Kwaidan*: Stories and Studies of Strange Things by Lafcadio Hearn. *A variant spelling.
Kami (kah-mee, gods): Includes indigenous gods, nature deities, guardian spirits, and ancestral spirits. Grand trees, unusual rock formations, or otherwise sacredly regarded objects occupied by kami are called shintai ('SHIN-tah-ee, body) when permanent and yorishiro (yoh-ree-shee-roh) when intermittent, sudden environmental changes indicating their arrival or departure (Nute, 12, 61). A shimenawa (shee-meh-nah-wah) or a sacred rice-straw rope (often with white zigzag paper streamers hanging from it) marks such sites. Clan or community guardians are called ujigami (oo-jee-gah-mee; Ono, 9).
Kaminari (kah-mee-nah-ree, thunder): He releases rolling thunder and lightning by striking a set of drums. He is also called Raijin (rah-ee-jeen) or Raiden (rah-ee-dehn) and likes to snack on belly buttons. His son Raitaro (rah-ee-tah-roh) calls in rainclouds. Raijin’s partner is Fūjin (foo-jeen), the god of wind, who carries it in a billowing sack over his shoulders.
Because lightning bridges the heavens with earth, trees struck by lightning (kantoki no ki) (kahn-toh-kee noh kee) are sacred.
Kanashibari (kah-nah-shee-bah-ree): Temporary form of ghost-induced paralysis that occurs while the victim is in bed and is semi-awake.
|Karakasa-obake (kah-rah-kah-sah oh-bah-keh) is an umbrella ghost, part of a group of carelessly thrown-away household objects that come to life after 100 years.|
|Karashishi (kah-rah-shee-shee, Chinese lion) and koma-inu (koh-mah ee-noo, Korean dog) are a popular pair of shrine guardians, which are found on the arriving pilgrim’s right and left sides respectively. They represent breath in (open-mouthed “ah”) and breath out (closed-mouth “un”), the beginning and end of existence.|
Kasane (kah-sah-neh): Woman who was born grotesquely ugly and was married not for love but for her land. After being murdered by her husband, Kasane turned into a vengeful ghost who haunted her ex-husband’s wives to their deaths.
Kekkai (keh-kah-ee, barrier): Spiritual barrier that separates the wilderness, kami (kah-mee), and evil spirits from human beings.
Kimo-dameshi (kee-moh-dah-meh-shee, soul examination): A courage-testing game where after a ghost story is told a person has to go out into a graveyard or similarly spooky area to retrieve a previously hidden flag or other object, or has to walk a haunted gauntlet.
|Kirin (kee-reen): Has the head of a dragon, a horse-like body, and multicolored patterned fur. The appearance of this sacred beast is a sign of great fortune.|
|Kitsune (kee-tsoo-neh, fox): Crafty shape-shifter that often turns into a beautiful young woman and is capable of possessing humans. Possession by a fox is called kitsune-tsuki (kee-tsoo-neh tsoo-kee, fox madness). When a fox turns one hundred, it becomes a shapeshifter. When a fox is one thousand years old, its red fur turns white and it may have as many as nine tails. Fox weddings are associated with sunshowers.
Foxes are also associated with Inari, deity of rice cultivation, for whom they are shrine guardians and messengers. Fried tofu is among the food offerings to this deity, thus where the name of inari sushi comes from.
Red fox, species Vulpes vulpes; Japanese red fox, smaller Hondo-kitsune (Taketazu, p. 133), species V. v. japonica; Hokkaido fox, larger Kita-kitsune (Taketazu, p. 133), species V. v. schrencki. Senses of hearing and smell are highly developed; poor eyesight (Taketazu, p. 137). Dark brown fur at birth to reddish-brown as an adult.
Recommended Reading: Taketazu, Minoru, photographer and author. Trans. by Richard L. Gage. Fox Family: Four Seasons of Animal Life. New York: Weatherhill/Heibonsha, 1979. Taketazu's beautiful and charming photographs were selected from almost 70,000 photographs taken over a period of twelve years (p. 139).
|Maneki-neko (mah-neh-kee neh-koh, beckoning cat): A higher-up avoided danger by stopping for a beckoning cat. Now a cat with an upraised paw and a gold coin is a symbol of welcome and prosperity.|
|Mitsume-kozō (mee-tsoo-meh koh-zoh): Three-eyed demon dressed in the garb of a novice monk.|
Minogame (mee-noh-gah-meh): Ten-thousand-year-old turtle with a long trailing tail of hair that is a symbol of longevity.
|Tanuki ('TAH-noo-kee, raccoon dog): Practical joker that can assume other forms, such as a teakettle or a Buddhist monk. The animal beats on its potbelly (or enormous scrotum) like a drum when the full moon is out. (Scrotum as drum? Interestingly enough, the testicles have a resemblance to the Buddhist mokugyo [moh-koo-gyoh, wooden fish] drum used for meditation and chanting.)|
Raccoon dog, species Nyctereutes procyonoides; Japanese raccoon dog, species N. p. viverrinus. Member of the same family that includes wolves and foxes. Dark mask-like patches make it resemble a racoon.
Teke-teke (teh-keh teh-keh): From Peter Payne's J-List newsletter (May 28, 2008), Teke-teke is the upper half of a woman who crawls all over Japan looking for her lower half after it was severed in a train accident in Hokkaido. Payne goes on to say that anyone who hears the story will bump into the woman's lower half within three days after hearing it.
|Tengu (tehn-goo, heavenly dog): They live in the deepest mountain forests and can travel through the trees at incredible speeds. The greater, human-looking Ō-tengu, dai-tengu, or konoha (koh-noh-hah) tengu dresses like a yámabushi (yah-MAH-boo-shee, mountain ascetic of the Shugen-dō sect), but has an unusually long nose and a fan of large feathers that can produce hurricane winds. The lesser kárasu (KAH-rah-soo, crow) tengu has a bird’s beak and wings.
The legendary general Yoshitsune (yoh-shee-tsoo-neh) of the Minamoto (mee-nah-moh-toh) clan is said to have learned swordmanship from tengu on Mt. Kurama (koo-rah-mah) near Kyoto. The leader of the tengu was Sōjōbo.
Tengu may have evolved from tales of aboriginal survivors or shipwrecked foreigners (long noses and sunburnt faces resembling human-like tengu) who retreated to the safety of the mountains. Another source suggests that tengu came from China (Akutagawa, Hell Screen, p. 25).
Teruteru-bōzu (teh-roo-teh-roo-boh-zoo, shiny-shiny bald monk): A ghost-like doll made from facial tissue, string, and a black marker. It is then hung by the window with a prayer for good weather.
Ichikawa, Takuji. Art by Sai Kawashima. Script by Yoko Iino. Be With You. Manga. Yuji Aio (boy) makes teruteru-bōzu, but he hangs them UPSIDE DOWN and prays for rain.
Toire no Hanako-san (Hanako-san of the toilet stall): A school ghost story, Hanako was a girl who committed suicide after being bullied by her classmates and now haunts school toilet stalls.
Tora (toh-rah, tiger): Tiger, species Panthera tigris.
Tsuchí-gumo (tsoo-CHEE goo-moh, earth spider): Ground spider that in legends is a giant monster that attacks people.
Tsuchí-no-ko (tsoo-CHEE noh koh, earth child; aka tsuchi-hebi, bachi-hebi): A snake-like or lizard-like creature with a swollen belly that is able to leap great distances or move very quickly. It is said to have the ability to talk to people. Sightings of the tsuchi-no-ko are like sightings of Bigfoot or the Loch Ness monster.
Tsuru (tsoo-roo, crane): It is a folk belief that cranes live at least one thousand years. A thousand paper cranes (semba-zuru, sem-bah zoo-roo) are often folded for good health, peace, and prosperity and left as offerings at religious sites. Japanese crane, species Grus japonensis.
Ubume (oo-boo-meh): Pregnant woman spirit who finds a home for newborns whose mothers died during childbirth.
Umi-bōzu (oo-mee boh-zoo, sea monk): Huge, ghostly sea monster that sinks boats.
Usagi (oo-sah-guee, rabbit): Moon Rabbit keeps himself busy making mochi (moh-chee, rice cakes). Sometimes Moon Rabbit is pictured with an old man and a frog.
Yōkai (yoh-kah-ee, nature spirit): Supernatural phantoms, monsters, and demons. Sometimes translated as goblins. Kappa and tengu are considered to be yōkai.
Yomi no Kuni (Land of the Dead): Hades. The Underworld.
Yonaki-ishi (yoh-nah-kee ee-shee, night-crying rock)
Yukí On’ná (yoo-KEE ohn-NAH, snow woman): Beautiful, ghostly winter spirit who appears to men in snowstorms and freezes them to death with her icy breath.
|Yūrei (YOO-reh-ee, ghost): Human ghosts whose feet dwindle into invisibility, the artistic trend toward depicting footless ghosts traced to painter Ōkyo Maruyama, who inspired another famous ghost painter Taiso Yoshitoshi to draw a scene where Ōkyo draws a yūrei so real that she springs out at him. Yūrei are usually pictured as females with long disheveled hair in a white burial kimono, their hands dangling from their arms in a stance like that of a praying mantis. Hito-dama often surround yūrei.
A summary of Mamoru Takada's article "Changes in the 'Image' of Ghosts," translated by Martha J. McClintock, notes the major types:
"The ghosts of the Edo period came in a variety of forms. This essay examines this diversity of forms and images among ghosts, basing its observations on the illustrations for a collection of mysterious stories published in the latter half of the 17th century. Ghost forms gradually were standardized, and the article enumerates the forms and traces their transformation. Ghost types are noted in the following order:
Addiss, Stephen, ed. Japanese Ghosts and Demons: Art of the Supernatural. New York: George Braziller, in association with Spencer Museum of Art, University of Kansas, 1985.
Akutagawa, Ryūnosuke (Given name lit. "dragon-helper," "…because he was born at the dragon hour on a dragon day in the dragon month of a dragon year," from Hell Screen "Introduction," p. 1). Trans. Seiichi Shiojiri. Kappa, rev. ed. Tokyo: Hokuseido Press, 1949.
Akutagawa, Ryūnosuke. Translated by W. H. H. Norman. Hell Screen (Jigoku Hen) and Other Stories. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1971, orig. pub. Hokuseido Press, Tokyo, 1948. "Jigokuhen no byōbu" (Hell Screen), a serialized short story written in 1918, is set during the Heian Era (794-1185) and is about an obsessed artist and a commissioned screen painting of the various Buddhist hells where souls are sent and punished for bad deeds.
Bodkin, Odds, retold by. The Crane Wife. Illustrated by Gennady Spirin. San Diego: Gulliver Books / Harcourt Brace & Co., 1998. 398.20952
Bush, Lewis. Japanalia, 2nd ed. Tokyo: Seihei Okuyama, 1956.
Garis, Frederic de. We Japanese: Being descriptions of many of the customs, manners, ceremonies, festivals, arts and crafts of the Japanese, besides numerous other subjects. Written for H.S.K. Yamaguchi. Yokohama: Yamagata Press, 1934.
Hearn, Lafcadio. In Ghostly Japan. Boston: Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1971. First published 1899 by Little, Brown, and Co.
Hearn, Lafcadio. Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things. Berkeley: Stone Bridge Press, 2006. First published 1904 by Houghton, Mifflin, and Co.
Kendall, Carol. Haunting Tales from Japan. Lawrence, KS: Spencer Museum of Art, University of Kansas, 1985.
Lau, Theodora. The Handbook of Chinese Horoscopes. 5th ed. New York: HarperResource/HarperCollins, 2005.
Martin, Rafe. Mysterious Tales of Japan. Illustrated by Tatsuro Kiuchi. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1996. 398.20952
Nakano, Yoshihito. 100 Demons of Horiyoshi III. Printed in Japan, 1998.
Nute, Kevin. Place, Time and Being in Japanese Architecture. London: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, 2004.
Ono, Sokyo. Shinto: The Kami Way. Rutland, VT and Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle, 1962.
Piggott, Juliet. Japanese Mythology. New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1969, 1982. 299.56113
Ross, Catrien. Supernatural and Mysterious Japan: Spirits, Hauntings and Paranormal Phenomena. Tokyo: Yenbooks, 1996. The only book I have that talks about contemporary paranormal phenomena in Japan.
Sakade, Florence, ed. Japanese Children's Favorite Stories. Illustrated by Yoshisuke Kurosaki. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1958. (First edition 1953.) 398.21
Sakai, Atsuharu. Japan in a Nutshell, Vol. I (1949) and Vol. II (1952) Yokohama: Yamagata Printing Co.
Stevenson, John. Yoshitoshi's Thirty-Six Ghosts. With introduction by Donald Richie. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1983; New York: Weatherhill/Blue Tiger, 1983. The artist Tsukioka Yoshitoshi, whose ghostly woodblock prints are featured in this book, actually had two real-life experiences with ghosts. One was the ghost of a girl who had committed suicide in a room he slept overnight in, and the other was of his wife when he moved into a new home. 769.924
Stevenson, John. Yoshitoshi's Strange Tales. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Hotei Publishing, 2005.
Taketazu, Minoru, photographer and author. Translated by Richard L. Gage. Fox Family: Four Seasons of Animal Life. New York: Weatherhill/Heibonsha, 1979. Taketazu's beautiful and charming photographs were selected from almost 70,000 photographs taken over a period of twelve years (p. 139).
Tiernan, Roxsane. Celebrate Japan. Illustrated by Kuniko Iyama. Vancouver, Canada: Maple Leaf Publishing, 1990. 394.26952. Iyama's watercolors are a nice touch.
Tsuji, Nobuo, ed. Japanese Ghost Paintings: The Sanyūtei Enchō Collection at Zenshō at Zenshō-an. Tokyo: Perikansha Publishing, 1995.
Walters, Derek. Chinese Astrology: Interpreting the Revelations of the Celestial Messengers. Wellingborough, Northamptonshire: Aquarian Press, 1987. 133.50951
Watkins, Yoko Kawashima. Tales from The Bamboo Grove. Illustrated by Jean and Mou-Sien Tseng. New York: Bradbury Press / MacMillan Publishing Co., 1992. 398.20952
Kinoshita, Sakura, and Kazuko Higashiyama. Tactics series. MAG Garden Corporation, 2002-? Houston: ADV Manga/A.D. Vision, 2005-?
Midorikawa, Yuki. Natsume Yūjin-chō (Natsume's Book of Friends) series. Tokyo: Hakusensha, 2005-2012.
Films and Animation|
Kurosawa, Akira. Red Beard. Toho Co., 1965. The Criterion Collection, 2002.
Mutoh, Yuji, director. Haunted Junction. Based on Nemu Mukudori's manga, published by MediaWorks, 1996-2001. DVD-ROM. Cypress, CA: Bandai Entertainment, 2000.
Nakata, Hideo, director. Screenplay by Hiroshi Takahashi. Ringu. Based on Koji Suzuki's novel Ringu (Ring), 1991. The Ring/The Spiral Production Group, 1998. DVD-ROM. Universal City, CA: DreamWorks, 2003.
Shimizu, Takashi, director and writer. Ju-on: The Grudge. DVD-ROM. Lion's Gate Home Entertainment, 2004.
Takahata, Isao, director and writer. Pom Poko. Studio Ghibli/Hatake Jimusho, 1994. DVD-ROM. Burbank, CA: Buena Vista Home Entertainment (distributor).
• "Ghosts, Demons & Spirits in Japanese Lore" by Norman Rubin
• Ghosts and Goblins: A Peek into the World of Korea's Supernatural Creatures
• Have you heard the one about? Japanese urban legends
• Japanese Buddhist Statuary: Gods, Goddesses, Shinto Kami, Creatures & Demons
• "Japanese Ghosts" by Tim Screech
• "Japanese Ghosts & Spirits" by Charla White
• Japanese Ghosts class websites
• Japanese Studies Yōkai Database (in Japanese only)
• The Obakemono Project
• "Yōkai," Monstropedia.com